بحران مهاجرت و همگرایی اروپا

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی -پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مطالعات منطقه ای دانشگاه تهران

2 .دانشجوی دکترای مطالعات اروپای دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در حالی که یکی از اهداف اصلی روند همگرایی اروپا آزادسازی رفت و آمد شهروندان در مرزها و ایجاد اروپای بدون مرز بوده بحران مهاجرت 2015 این روند را با بحران مواجهه کرده است. سؤال اصلی مقاله حاضر این است که چرا جابجایی شهروندان و مهاجران بین مرزهای کشورهای عضو اتحادیه اروپا عامل تضعیف همگرایی اروپا است؟ فرضیه مقاله این است که سیستم(بحران مهاجرت 2015) و ابعاد مختلف ساختار اروپای همگرا شده­(مانند عوامل طبیعی، فرهنگی، ایدئولوژیکی، اجتماعی، سیاسی، اقتصادی و...) بر هم کنش و واکنش متقابل دارند. یافته­های مقاله نشان می­دهد که محیط بحران مهاجرت 2015 را عواملی تشکیل می‌دهد که اگر چه جزء آن نیستند، اما تغییر در هر یک از آن‌ها موجب تغییراتی در سیستم مهاجرت می­شود و بر عکس. روش تحقیق مورد استفاده در این مقاله روش توصیفی - تحلیلی است. همچنین شیوه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه‌ای است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Migration crisis and Integration in Europe

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Sabaghian 1
  • Ali Karami 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Regional Studies, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Abstract                         
While one of the main goals of the European convergence process has been free movement of citizens at borders and the creation of a Europe without frontiers, 2015 immigration crisis has encountered this trend with crisis. The main question of the present article is that why immigration and the displacement of citizens and migrants across the borders of the European Union is the weakening factor of European convergence? The hypothesis of the paper is that the system (2015 Immigration Crisis) and the various dimensions of the convergent European structure (such as natural, cultural, ideological, social, political, economic, etc.) are interacting and interacting. The findings of the paper show that the 2015 immigration crisis Environment Forms Factors that, although not part of it, change in each of them causes changes in the immigration system and vice versa. The research method used in this paper is descriptive-analytical.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Migration
  • Crisis
  • European Integration
  • System model

رضی، محمد رضا­(1394)، عملکرد کشورهای عضو اتحادیه اروپا در قبال پناهجویان­، ماهنامه پژوهش ملل­، دوره اول، شماره یکم (­ صفحه­­ 23 - 30).

سجادپور، سید­کاظم­(1384)، چارچوب­های مفهومی و عملیاتی در مدیریت مهاجرت بین‌المللی مطالعه موردی ایران، فصلنامه تحقیقات جغرافیایی، شماره 78(صفحه 9 - 30).

محمدنیا، مهدی(1395)، مهاجرت و رادیکالیسم در اتحادیه اروپا، فصلنامه روابط خارجی، سال هشتم، شماره دوم(ص 86 - 5٧).

Archick, K. (­2016). The European Union: Current Challenges and Future Prospects, Congressional Research Service Reports https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855829/

Carrera, S. & Radescu, R. & Reslow, N. (­2015). EU External Migration Policies: A Preliminary Mapping of the Instruments, the Actors and their Priorities, Report prepared for the FP7 project ‘Transnational Migration in Transition: Transformative Characteristics of Temporary Mobility of People’ (EURA-NET), Deliverable 3.1 http://www.uta.fi/eura-net/

Collett, E. & Le Coz, C. (­2018). After the Storm: Learning from the EU response to the migration crisis. Brus. sels: Migration Policy Institute Europe(1-62)

Davis, L. & S. Deole, S. (­2017). Immigration and the Rise of Far-Right Parties in Europe, ifo DICE Report 4, Volume 15.

De Haas, H. (­2010a). The Internal Dynamics of Migration Processes: A Theoretical Inquiry, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36: 1587–617.

Dimitriadi, A. (­2016). Deals without Borders: Europe's Foreign Policy on Migration, European Council on Foreign Relations, European Council on Foreign, European Council on Foreign Relations, 11 pages

Dimitriadi, A.­ (2017c). Governing irregular migration at the margins of Europe. The case of hotspots on the Greek islands, Etnografia e ricerca qualitative 1:75-96.

EEAG. (­2017). The EEAG Report on the European Economy, “Immigration and the Refugee Crisis – Can Europe rise to the Challenge?” CESifo, Munich 2017, pp. 82–101.

Fillmore, M. (­­2016). Italy, the European Union, and Mediterranean Migrants, www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1029749.pdf

Grigonis, S.­ (2016). EU in the face of migrant crisis: Reasons for ineffective human rights pro-tection. In: International Comparative Jurisprudence. URL: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S235166 7416300439/1-s2.0-S2351667416300439-main.pdf?

Kubal, A. & Bakewell, O. & de Haas, H. (­­2011a). The Evolution of Brazilian Migration to the UK: Scoping Study Report’, Oxford: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford, available online at www.imi.ox.ac.uk/research-projects/themis.

Kubal, A. & Bakewell, O. & de Haas, H. (2011b). The Evolution of Ukrainian Migration to the UK: Scoping Study Report’, Oxford: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford, available online at www.imi.ox.ac.uk/research-projects/themis.

Kubal, A. & Bakewell, O. & de Haas, H. ­­­(2011c). The Evolution of Moroccan Migration to the UK: Scoping Study Report’, Oxford: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford, available online at www.imi.ox.ac.uk/research-projects/themis.

Kurekova, L.­ (2011). Theories of migration: Conceptual review and empirical testing in the context of the EU East-West flows. Interdisciplinary Conference on Migration. Economic Change, Social Challenge. April 6-9, University College. London: Central European University.

Mabogunje, A. L. (­­1970). Systems Approach to a Theory of Rural–Urban Migration, Geographical Analysis 2: 1–18.

Maldini, P. &Takahashi, M. (­2017). Refugee Crisis and the European Union: Do the Failed Migration and Asylum Policies Indicate a Political and Structural Crisis of European Integration? https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/282454

Managing Migration in all its aspects, (­2018). Commission Note ahead of the June European Council 2018, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/euco-migration-booklet-june2018_en.pdf

Migration to the EU: five persistent challenges, (­2018). see at: http://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/five-persistent-migration-challenges

Poddar, S. (­2016). European Migrant Crisis: Financial Burden or Economic Opportunity?" (2016). Social Impact Research Experience(SIRE). 43. http://repository.upenn.edu/sire/43

Stiftung, R. B. (2017). Opportunities in Crisis: The Future of Refugee Policy in Germany and Europe Nine core messages. http://www.bosch-stiftung.de/content/language2/downloads/SVR_Annual_Report_2017_Nine_Core_Messages.pdf

Weber, B. (2017). The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal and the Not Quite Closed Balkan Route. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/ wiso/13536.pdf

Wintour, P. ­(2017). EU takes action against eastern states for refusing to take refugees. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/13/eu-takesaction-against-eastern-states-for-refusing-to-take-refugees

https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_statistics

https://www.statista.com/statistics/454817/number-of-facilitators-of-illegal-eu-immigration /

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/03/mediterranean-migrants-drown-three-days-libya-italy