نوع مقاله : مقاله های برگرفته از رساله و پایان نامه
1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران
2 دانشیار دانشکده جغرافیا، گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران
3 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران
4 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی و گردشگری، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Sea) is the largest lake (or sea) in the world, which is located between Asia and Europe and has no natural waterway to open waters. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Sea) was known as the Iran-Soviet Sea, but in practice it was under the authority and domination of the Soviet Union, and even the extraction of oil and its distribution among the internal autonomous republics of the Soviet Union without coordination with Iran. It took place in the area above the Marhoum Hosseinqali-Astara line. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of three new countries, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan, the geopolitical (political geography) and geoeconomic (or geopolitical economic dimension) situation of the region also changed, and the reserves and energy (fossil) resources available in that area became the focus of regional powers. and attracted a trans-region in advance. With the ever-increasing economic dependence of the world on (fossil) hydrocarbon reserves and energy sources and the continuation of tensions in the Middle East (Southwest Asia) and the instability of that region, as well as the emergence of Russia as a major player in the world's (fossil) energy market, oil And the Caspian gas and its energy transfer routes to consumption markets were also noticed by major industrial powers and international and global oil companies. Since the mentioned region is landlocked, the first and the biggest geopolitical problem of these republics and oil companies is the transfer of oil and gas from this region to the international and global markets, which must inevitably be used for energy supply. Transmission lines should be used. In this research, an attempt is made to answer this basic question using a descriptive-analytical approach: Iran's geopolitical position (political geography) in plans to transfer reserves and energy resources from the Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Sea) and geo-economic development (or What is the economic and geopolitical position of Central Asia and the Caucasus? The research results show that due to its special geopolitical position, Iran can play a transit role and connect these countries to open waters and Europe. In other words, due to its geographic (natural and human) location, Iran is considered as an undeniably suitable option for the transfer of oil and gas from the newly independent countries of Central Asia to the consumption markets. In addition to the opportunities it provides to Iran, these issues have also created challenges for Iran, such as the presence of America and Israel in the region. Westerners know very well that the southern route and Iran is the only route that can transfer the oil and gas needed by Europe without crossing the borders of Russia. But it seems that as long as the differences between Iran and the United States of America continue, the United States will prevent the transfer of energy from the Caspian Sea basin through Iran, and it will continue to support lines such as Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, which do not pass through Iran and Russia. It will be the United States. In this regard, the United States has tried to deal with the slogan of not north, not south, west or east, and with the strategy of multiple pipelines (or transmission routes) with the transfer of regional oil and gas through Russia and Iran. Undoubtedly, Iran is at the center of the foreign policy of the United States of America in the region due to political and ideological differences.